El Medina is located geographically in the western region of the Arabian Peninsula 420 km to the north of Mecca, and 900 km away from El Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The proximity to Mecca is the most important feature of the Medina, where the two cities were linked together since the appearance of Islam, then the Medina became the first capital of the Islamic State, replacing in this Mecca, which lies to its south and which had political and economic sovereignty to the Arabian Peninsula before the migration of the Prophet Muhammad (God bless him and grant him salvation), and made El Medina the center for the introduction of Islam. The geographical location of the city made it a center for surrounding cities such as Jeddah 397 meters away, Mecca 497 km and Breedah 590 km, Al-Taif, 535 km, and thus is ranked first among all cities of the Kingdom in terms of connectivity (four points).
The city is located on (39) degrees (36) minutes and one second from longitude lines, and (24) degrees and (28) minutes (5) seconds from latitude. It rises (597) and (639) m above from the sea level.
Names of El Medinah:
"Yathreb" was the name of El Medina before the migration of the Prophet (God bless him and grant him salvation). It is said that this is the name of a man who was the first to live in El Medina after the flood, and there is more than one reason for the name, but it is confirmed that Arabs called it by that name on the emergence of Islam. Then it changed to El "Medina" after the blessed migration of the Prophet.
El Medina is the first capital of Islam, containing the Prophet's Mosque and his holy grave, known as "El Medina", and familiar to all even if so called without the addition of any word after; this name has been mentioned in the Holy Quran in four places (see the holy city of Medina in the Holy Quran), as mentioned in the speech of the Prophet, and also the word "El Monwara" is added to the "Medina" because it is lit by the light of God and His Messenger (God bless him and grant him salvation).
Virtues of El Medina:
1- The sanctity of the holy city of Medina:
God bestowed some people, times, and places with distinct characteristics, for example, prophet Mohammed (God bless him and grant him salvation) and his brothers the prophets were distinguished among people, Ramadan, The Night of Fate, and Friday among all times, and Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem among all other places.
And the holy city of El Medina occupies a place among the great cities of the Islamic world, with a privacy and sanctity in the hearts of Muslims, for it is the House of migration, and the home of God's Messenger (God bless him and grant him salvation); it contains his holy Mosque, and it is the house the first Muslim community, and the launching point of the Islamic armies, and the first capital of Islam, which embraces great historical places and many faith symbols. Many prophet speeches were told in its favor that shows the many aspects of its virtues, like Abdullah bin Zaid speech (God bless him) on the Messenger of God (God bless him and grant him salvation): (As Ibrahim blessed and prayed for Mecca, shall I bless and pray for Medina as such).
From the speech of Anas ibn Malik (God bless him), when he oversaw the city, he said: (Oh God, I bless what is between its two mountains as Ibrahim blessed Mecca, oh God bless them).
2- Living close to and in El Medina:
Prophet Mohammad (God bless him and grant him salvation) said: (He, who is patient on its tiredness and effort, shall be blessed on the Day of Resurrection). Also Abu Hurayrah (God bless him) said: I heard the Prophet (God bless him and grant him salvation) say: (Those who visit my Mosque for some deed either to be learnt or taught, it is like doing something for the sake of God; otherwise, it is like a man who came to spy on another's possessions). God's Messenger (God bless him and grant him salvation) has made sure that those visiting this city either be for seeking to know or those who already know so that they obtain the highest degrees of salvation and great status in working for the sake of God The Almighty.
3- Blessings of El Medina:
It was proven about the Prophet (God bless him and grant him salvation), that he prayed for the people of Medina to be blessed, and God fulfilled his prayers, so people were blessed as a result to this holy prayers of God's Messenger (God bless him and grant him salvation).
Abdullah bin Zaid (God bless him) speech of the Prophet (God bless him and grant him salvation): (As Ibrahim blessed and prayed for Mecca, shall I bless and pray for Medina as such).
4- Keeping the city from the plague and the Swindler:
In regards to health and pestilences affecting people and countries, the Messenger of God (God bless him and grant him salvation) prayed for its people to be healed from fever and disease; He said: (Oh God, move this pestilence to Al Jehfa).