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It is a city in the Hijaz region, Saudi Arabia. Was the first capital of the Islamic state known before Islam by the name of Yathreb. It contains the Prophet's Mosque, the second most important holy place for Muslims after Mecca. It is known as Teeba and Taba bounded by Laptan and Jabalan; it is the city that Prophet Mohammed bin Abdullah migrated to from Mecca. From there emerged the Islamic State. It contains the Prophet's Mosque, founded by the Prophet Muhammad bin Abdullah, as well as it contains Bokai and Kabaa, Koblatain, and Al Mikat Mosques.

El Medina is located geographically in the western region of the Arabian Peninsula 420 km to the north of Mecca, and 900 km away from El Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The proximity to Mecca is the most important feature of the Medina, where the two cities were linked together since the appearance of Islam, then the Medina became the first capital of the Islamic State, replacing in this Mecca, which lies to its south and which had political and economic sovereignty to the Arabian Peninsula before the migration of the Prophet Muhammad (God bless him and grant him salvation), and made El Medina the center for the introduction of Islam. The geographical location of the city made it a center for surrounding cities such as Jeddah 397 meters away, Mecca 497 km, Breedah 590 km, and Al-Taif 535 km.

Surface and Natural Geography:
El Medina is an agricultural oasis and stretching on a spacious fertile land environed by emblazoned black stones which are relics of the volcanic deposits and bursting. It was called Bilapti El Medina and is characterized by the fertility of its soil and the abundance and freshness of its water; in addition to the natural topographical protectorates surrounding this oasis which consist the whole of the mountains, hills, and valleys.

Two mountains and two valleys embrace the city of Medina, from the south side Mount Ayr and Al Aqeeq Valley, and from the North Ahad Mountain and Kanat valley. Ahad Mount is one of the most important phenomenon in the north, which stretches along 6.5 kilometers, surrounded by a group of small mountains, the most important of which is Ainain Mount at the south, Dalee Mount to the west and Thor Mount to the North, a small round red mount which is considered the northern boundary of the Medina and its temple.

Medina area exceeds 300 square km.

El Medina is very hot in summer, moderate in autumn and spring, and mild in winter.

The population of Medina in 1345 Hijri (1926) was fifty thousand people, today is about six hundred thousand people.

The Migration of Prophet Mohamad (God bless Him and grant him salvation):
The Prophet allowed his companions to migrate to the Medina for good; so the left before the Prophet and none remained in Mecca accept those imprisoned by Quraish and only Ali bin Abi Talib, who slept in the Prophet's bed, so that Quraish thinks it is the Prophet (God bless Him and grant him salvation); and Abu Bakr had been delayed in migration also because he was his companion on the journey of migration.

Quraish was watching the House of the Prophet so as not to escape, and had prepared a knight from each tribe sitting with his weapon at the door of his home; they wanted to kill him with those swords, expecting that his blood will spread in those tribes so they do not know who killed him.

But when God allowed them to leave at night, he put on their heads handful of sand while the knights were falling in deep sleep. The heat from the sun woke them up the second day, and they were very mad and went in search of the Prophet but didn't find him. When they reached the place where the Prophet were hiding they couldn't see him since the spider had woven its web to hide the Prophet from his enemies eyes.

The journey continued till they reached Kabaa where the whole city gathered to welcome them. There settled the Prophet and established the State of Islam.

Holy Medina:
Abdullah bin Zaid (God bless him) speech of the Prophet (God bless him and grant him salvation): (As Ibrahim blessed and prayed for Mecca, shall I bless and pray for Medina as such).Bukhari and Muslim

From the speech of Anas bin Malik (God bless him), when he oversaw the city, he said: (Oh God, I bless what is between its two mountains as Ibrahim blessed Mecca, oh God bless them).Bukhari and Muslim

Living close to and in El Medina:
Prophet Mohammad (God bless him and grant him salvation) said: (He, who is patient on its tiredness and effort, shall be blessed on the Day of Resurrection). This shows the great and holy mark of Medina among other countries and cities; otherwise, The Prophet would have not given it this holy position.

Keeping the city from the plague and the Swindler:
Abu Hurayrah (God bless him) said: The Prophet (God bless Him and grant Him salvation) told that angels dwell on the Medina relics so that plague and swindler can not enter. Bukhari and Muslim

Also some of Medina features are:
 » God said through Prophet Al Mustafa (God bless Him) that it is a safe and holy place.
 » Forbiddance to carry weapons and shed blood there, same as Mecca.
 » Forbiddance of hunting there, same as Mecca.
 » Forbiddance to cut its trees and grass, same as Mecca.
 » Forbiddance of transporting its soil and stones, same as in Mecca.
 » The dwelling place of the Prophet (God Bless Him and grant Him salvation).
 » Place of the Islamic religion.
 » All countries were conquered from Medina.
 » God's Prophet and his followers all died there.
 » Prophet Mohamad (God bless Him and grant Him salvation) prayed for Medina to be loved same as Mecca and even more.
 » Prophet Mohamad (God bless Him and grant Him salvation) used to offer a warm salutation by moving his horse when seeing Medina walls after coming from travel.
 » The many names it has.
 » Calling it Teeba and Taba which are holy names give by God.
 » Blessings and easiness of living in Medina.
 » The many prayers Prophet Mohamad (God bless Him and grant Him salvation) performed for Medina.

The Holy Mosque:
It is located in center of Medina resembling in that the location of the heart in the body, and rises 597m above sea level on a longitude of 39-36', and latitude 24-28'.

It is bounded by Al Bab Al Majeedi and Al Saheemi Street from the north, Haret Douran and Dareb Al Janaez street from the south, Haret Al Aghwat from the east, and from the west Bab Al Salam which leads to Al Hussainiya, Al Ainiya, and Al Souk streets.

Is the second mosque built by the Messenger of God in the first year of migration - the first of which is Koubaa mosque - and the mosque land was a place for drying dates when the prophet came to Medina for orphan twins Suheil and Sahel who were in Asaad Bin Zarara house; and when he got to the oasis in the city, all of his followers wanted to take his horse so that the Prophet would be their visitor, but the Prophet used to say: "leave it to settle by itself". The horse laid down in the place of the mosque, and then the Prophet said "this will be the house if God wills". Then he summoned on the twins and paid them ten dinars since he didn't accept it as a gift, and started building the mosque by himself together with his followers. It has taken 7 months, some said 1 year, and others one month to finish.

Expansion and reconstruction:
The Prophet planned the land of the mosque and made it 50-meter long and 49 m wide, and made the kiblah towards Al Makdis House, and dug its foundation and used palm branches for its roof and palm trunks for its columns. It had three doors, one at the rare side which was called Atika door, Al Rahma door, and Jebrael door which the Prophet used to enter the mosque from. And he planned a shadowed place known as "Afsaffa"; it was the place where strangers and poor people used to aim. The Prophet didn't roof over the entire mosque so when it rained all people praying there used to get wet from rain water mixed with clay from the ceiling. But The Prophet refused to add more clay to the roof. The floor of the mosque was not paved at the beginning, but later was spread all with stones.

And when the kiblah moved from Al Makdis House to Kaaba, a change appeared in the mosque where "Al Saffa" moved from the south to the north of the mosque, and the rare door was replaced by a door to the north, and many expansions took place at the mosque, the latest of which was in year 1955 where its area reached 160366 square meters.

The Mosque boundaries: it is bounded from the south by a yellow copper fence at the end of the holy meadow, from the north the beginning of the first yard that follows the roofed mosque, from the east the wall of the holy chamber, and from the west the fifth column before the western wall of the Mosque.

Inside the Holy Mosque is a yard containing a small garden with a red painted iron fence, and decorated with the most beautiful suspended lamps and chandeliers made of crystal.

The mosque floors were paved with red stones and marble, and the entire roof of the mosque had been covered with domes coated with lead sheets and the highest of these domes is that found over the Holy Tomb of Prophet Mohammad, then followed by the Ottoman's Niche Dome and the Peace Door Dome, while the remaining domes are of the same height. Inside the domes are marvelous inscriptions and written verses of the Koran.

The Holy Mosque contained three prayer niches: the Prophet's Niche, the Ottoman Niche, and the Soulaimani Niche. All covered with gold, and each had candleholders carrying candles to be lit.

The Holy Temple preserved its four doors: The Peace Door "the widest and most beautiful of all", the Door of Mercy "those two doors are located to the west of the Mosque", the Women's Door, and Gabriel's Door "located to the east of the Mosque". The doors' shutters are of walnut wood, carved with yellow copper marvelous inscriptions; then Sultan Abdul Hamid added a fifth door to the north of the Mosque known as the Holy Door or the Begging Door. There are doors created in the Saudi Arabian's expansion which are Abdel-Aziz Door, Uthman Bin Affan Door, Omar Bin Al Khattab Door, and Saud Door.

The Holy Platform:
It is made of marvelous marble, its two banners of green velvet covered with gold water, its flags of gold and silver, and its carpeting of red plums; and there were two benches which were used for prayers, one in the Holy Meadow near to the Holy Niche and the other at the end of the roofed Mosque.

The Lighthouses:
The Mosque contained five lighthouses:
  - The main lighthouse located at the south eastern corner of the mosque, known long ago by the name of "angels".
  - The north eastern lighthouse knows as "Al Soulaimaniya" with three balconies.
  - The north western lighthouse knows as "Al Majeediya".
  - The Mercy Door lighthouse which is the shortest among all with two balconies located to the side of the Mercy Door.
  - The south western lighthouse known as "the Peace Door lighthouse".

And above each lighthouse except the main one there is a gold covered flag; while above the main lighthouse a brazier was built of the same structure of the lighthouse above which there is a flag, and no one enters there except those serving in the mosque and looking after it. In summer the mosque is covered with 400 mats brought from Egypt; whereas, in summer it is covered with big expensive carpets.

The Holy Meadow:
Its boundaries are Aesha from the east, the Holy Platform from the west, the mosque's wall from the south, and the road from Aesha house to the platform.

The Columns:
  - The scented column which the Prophet prayed to after the change of kiblah from Bait El Makdis to Kaaba.
  - El Kuraa Column, "Aesha or Mohajereen Column".
  - Remorse Column, "Abi Lababa Column".
  - The bed Column which is joined to the window overlooking the Holy Meadow.
  - The Guardians Column facing the plum tree that Prophet Mohammad used to enter from.
  - The tomb square Column known also as Gabriel's Column where exists the door of Al Sayida Fatima El Zahraa, which Prophet Ali used to enter, and it is located inside the wall surrounding the Holy Tomb.
  - The prayer Column located behind the house of Al Sayida Fatima El Zahraa to the north containing a small prayer niche which she used to pray; and it is said that it was the prayer place of Prophet Mohammad at night.

All the columns of the Holy Meadow is covered with marble and embroidered with gold water.

The Holy Chamber:
It is all what the new green painted network embraces from the east, north, and west. It was built by Ibrahim Basha in 1228 Hijri, and is a roofed wooden room and the side where the visitors stand at is covered with hard yellow copper net with cord and outside it another layer of copper windows with silver rings and contains a small door made of silver coated with gold.

Al Sayida Fatima Chamber:
It contains a prayer niche adjacent to a tomb with silver candleholders and 40 lamps hanged on golden chains. The carpeting is the same as the Holy Chamber and there are four corners for the tomb with a gold flag on each corner with crescent made of jewels. And above the tomb there are Kashmir shawls some woven of canes. The curtains are of green embroidered atlas coated with gold.

The only persons admitted to this chamber are the responsible persons and servants of the Holy Chamber. The most expensive item of the chamber is the big piece of diamond stones on a column to the holy side of the Prophet's tomb. The first and second successors were buried beside the Holy Chamber.

Many buildings are associated with the mosque: "Aroukat El Aghwath", The Holy Mosque library, The Koran Library located in the Holy Mosque.

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